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Imaging of PN Junction

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The AFM image of a pn junction shows no features because of its flat topography   The NSOM image obtained in reflection mode reveals the sequence of active areas   The Resistivity image of the same region clearly shows the two biased junctions

This example demonstrates the use of the electrical features of the Nanonics glass probe based SPM sensors. The surface is flat and thus, there are no surface features that could indicate via the AFM topography where the pn junction is located but the resistivity image shows the resistance in two of the connected pn junctions. This data can be analyzed to give the carrier concentration. 

Only Nanonics can produce simultaneous Near-field optical and Electrical imaging

These Images were produced using the The MultiView 1000™
Electrical Probe with a conductive gold coating   The MultiView 1000 head

The Nanonics MultiView 1000™ is designed around  the 3D Flatscan™ which has a completely free optical axis from above and below the sample. Nanonics uses NSOM cantilevered optical fiber probes  which do not block the microscope objective. The metal coating of these probes allows them to be used for electrical measurementes while the aperture at their tips illuminates the sample in the near field.


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NSOM Reflection of SRAM

AFM and Reflection NSOM of SRAM


4 X 4 micron AFM image of SRAM showing a topographic relief of the surface   The simultaneous NSOM image obtained in reflection mode shows the structure underneath the silicon layer

These Images were produced using the The MultiView 1000™ . This is the only system available today which can produce reflection NSOM in the intermittent contact mode.


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Nearfield Excitation & Collection



  Top View from an upright optical microscope: Near-field excitation of a SM fiber with NSOM probe and Near-field collection of the output light with a second NSOM probe obtained with MultiView 4000TM system.  



AFM (left) NSOM (Lower left) imaged with the collection NSOM probe. Lower right is a collage image composing topography and the near-field output distribution of 532nm laser from the SM fiber.


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Multiprobe Thermoconductivity

Dual Nano-Wire Thermal Conductivity Measurements




Nanonics has also developed Dual Wire Thermo-Resistance probes for use with the MultiView 4000™. In this specialized probe, two platinum wires are stretched through the nanopipette and are fused together at their tips. This fused junction has a resistance that is temperature-dependent. The unique probe allows for simultaneous measurement of surface topography and thermal conductivity even in intermittent contact mode. With multiple probes, heat can be introduced at specific locations and detected at other locations. The probes can also be used for resistance measurements. Only the MultiView 4000™ utilizing Dual Wire Thermo-Resistance probes with their exposed probe tip is capable of these functions.A thermal conductivity image of a static random access memory (SRAM) device is compared with the AFM topography. As contact is made in different regions of the SRAM with the thermal conductivity probe, the probe tip cools to different levels depending on the thermal conductivity of the material that is sitting under the chemically mechanically polished flat surface. The resulting image is obtained by determining the current alterations that had to be affected in order to keep the current flowing past the point resistance at a constant value.

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Multiprobe Optical and Thermal Profiling





The MultiView 4000™ System simplifies the task of optically and thermally profiling on-line an optoelectronic device. Seen in these images (above) are the optical distribution of light in a quantum wire laser (NSOM) and the thermal distribution around the laser. The image below includes the p contact region in the thermal image. As can be seen, the thermal and light distribution bear no correlation to one another, but rather the thermal distribution is bowed towards the p contact where electrical charge is injected.
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Multiprobe Chemical Writing

MultiProbe NanoChemical Writing


Fountain Pen Nanolithography (FPN) pipette probe allows for chemical nanowriting with one probe of the Multiview 4000TM system. A second AFM probe is used SPM imaging of the deposited materials. Letf: shows a nanopipette probe delivering a BSA protein on an aldehyde modified surface. Middle: shows the feature being imaging with a second AFM probe for obtaining the topography of the deposited BAS (right). With the Nanonics Fountain Pen Nanolithography [FPN] System, it is now possible to perform chemical nanolithography via liquid and gas delivery to the sample using the Nanonics' patented nanopipetteprobe, which acts simultaneously as an AFM tip and online delivery system. All Nanonics’ MultiViewTM SPM systems allow for FPN including the MultiView4000TM Multi-probe systems.
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Apertureless Multiprobe

MultiProbe Apertureless NSOM




Multiprobe Apertureless NSOM/ sSNOM: Efficient excitation of a plasmonic structure using an apertured NSOM probe (right probe) which produces all k vectors for effective plasmonic excitation while monitoring the same structure with a scattering probe (left probe). Right: Plasmonic propagation excited by an apertured NSOM probe while a second, low dielectric, non-perturbing, apertureless, fluorescent tipped probe is used for detection of the plasmon propagation 

Scattering near-field scanning optical microscopy called ANSOM or sSNOM has been applied to look at plasmonic distribution. Unfortunately, the probes that need to be used in order to effectively scatter the plasmonic signal have significant perturbation on the plasmonic propagation because of the need to use probes with high dielectric constant to obtain effective signal to noise.The images above show an apertureless NSOM probe that is used as a localized detector of plasmonic propagation without significant effect on the distribution of plasmons. The image indicate that localized aperture NSOM illumination and apertureless monitoring of plasmons has significant potential for investigating plasmonic structures.

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Multiprobe AFM Raman

Dual Probe Nanoindentation with On-line AFM/Raman Profiling





The images above show the utility of two probes on-line in nanoindentation experiments. With the nanoindentation shown here it would be impossible to perform the imaging task with only the indenting probe. It also shows the great utility of the optically friendly nature of the multi probe system which in this case permits an on-line Raman map for chemically characterizing the nanoindentation. All Nanonics MultiView Systems can be integrated with any optical or electron/ion optical microscope system

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Chondrocytes AFM Imaging in Liquid Cell


AFM imaging of Chondrocytes cells in liquid media. Middle and right images are close-up scans.  


The Nanonics HydraTM AFM system allows for unique Tuning Fork AFM feedback imaging in liquid environments (right). The setup provides a clear optical axis even from the top, suitable for water immersion objectives. The red marked circle in the left-hand picture shows the very end of the AFM tip during the above AFM scans.


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Neuroblastoma AFM Imaging

AFM imaging of Neuroblastoma cells in liquid 

AFM close-up imaging of Neuroblastoma cells in liquid  

3D AFM imaging of Neuroblastoma cells in liquid  3D AFM close-up imaging of Neuroblastoma cells in liquid






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