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Wednesday, 17 April 2013 08:50

Deep Trench Imaging

A Nanonics MultiView SPM system was used to obtain images of a 
silicon wafer sample (below) with deep trenches (prepared by the Bosch process). Deeply etched structures like these are essential for many applications; as such there is an ever increasing demand for improvements in etching technology. This will prove vital for the manufacture of electronic devices, particularly in the development of sensors with greater sensitivity and accuracy.






A CCD Image of the holes

  2D AFM topographic Image of holes

Above we can see examples of sidewall imaging in trenches with depths of greater than 22 microns. This is only made possible by virtue of Nanonics’ MultiView systems with their 3D Flat Scanner with its large (200 microns) Z range and its combination with our special patented, deep-trench glass cantilevered probes. Such probes, with their extended tip length and high aspect ratios enable the investigation of deep crevices and trenches. 

The image on the upper left shows the AFM image of a Si wafer and its holes /trenches. The probe was then used to image the sidewalls of one of these holes and this is shown in the upper right-hand image. Nanonics probes are able to reach into sidewalls due to their exposed tips and thus scan in X-Z, something impossible to achieve with regular silicon AFM probes. Nanonics cantilevered probes make such fine sidewall imaging a reality! 


At the bottom is shown a scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the same sidewall. Nanonics’ systems are also transparently-integrated with SEM and FIB.


SEM image of Trench

Wednesday, 17 April 2013 08:45

Carbon Nanotubes

1.6 x 1.4 micron AFM Topography z-range 15nm


Linescan showing the 12nm cross-seciton of the nanotube

Wednesday, 17 April 2013 08:27

Carbon Nanotube Images




















AFM Topography of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Wednesday, 17 April 2013 08:19

Almunia Template Image


800 x 800nm Topography AFM image  800 x 800nm Phase AFM image




Sunday, 14 April 2013 09:53

Two-Probe Nanolithography

A: Optical microscope picture (50x objective) shows two-probe lithography with a nanopipette probe for writing and an AFM probe for imaging. BSA protein deposition on an aldehyde modified surface is demonstrated.

B: Imaging of the deposited features with an AFM probe.


C: AFM topographic image shows the printed features as in B. 

WSxM software has been used for image processing of the pictures above: I. Horcas et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013705 (2007)

Nanonics' two-probe systems are unique for nanolithography manipulation and imaging. A nanopipette is used as a first probe to perform the lithography under capillary forces or voltage controlled  deposition. The second probe is used for accurate SPM imaging.

  • The advantages of online writing and reading are:
  • It is not necessary to change the tips to perform lithography and subsequent AFM imaging – both tips can be mounted on one system. This allows for higher AFM resolution and for easier location of the deposited features.
  • Immediate scanning following the deposition procedure can be achieved.
  •  Multiprobe systems are operated by tip and sample scanning modes which allow for flexible positioning and manipulation.
  • All probes, nanopipettes and AFM probes are completely exposed to the Z optical axis of upright and inverted microscopes.
  • Nanonics’ Fountain Pen Nanolithography permits the integration of a variety of inks and samples. 

Ideal system for this application:
MultiView 4000 TM 


  MultiView 4000TM system with two probes for nanolithography writing and AFM/SPM imaging mounted on a Dual Optical Microscope with free Z optical axis.  Two probes close up picture shows nanopipette probe (right) for nanolithography and a second probe (Left) AFM/SPM imaging. 
Sunday, 14 April 2013 09:40

TiO2 Nanolithography

TiO2 Particles on Hydrophobic Surface

All the structures below were formed by online delivery of the chemical to the surface using the Nanonics Chemical Delivery System and Nanopipette. The Images were produced using the using the MultiView 4000™.

Only Nanonics can deliver chemicals or gas onto the sample on line, with no need to remove the tip from the sample.


AFM topography of TiO2 ring
4.5 X 4.5 micron AFM image of TiO2 line
AFM topography of TiO2 ring


  Nanofountain Pen reviewed by Nature Materials

In the August 2003 edition of Nature Materials. The Nanofountain Pen was reviewed in the Material Update section.


Sunday, 14 April 2013 09:16

Protein Nanoarray

Protein NanoDots


4X4 micron Image of Protein dots printed with a Nanofountain Pen


Protein printing is made possible by the Nanonics Chemical Delivery System and Nanopipette Only Nanonics can deliver chemicals or gas onto the sample on line, with no need to remove the tip from the sample.

  Nanofountain Pen reviewed by Nature Materials

In the August 2003 edition of Nature Materials. The Nanofountain Pen was reviewed in the Material Update section.

Sunday, 14 April 2013 09:00

Fountain Pen Printing

NanoFountain Pen Printing: Metallic Lines on Non-Conducting Surfaces


AFM Sensing Nanopipette Based NanoFountainPenTM


Nanonics with its unique glass AFM probes has developed a NanoFountain Pen based on a cantilevered nanopipette. It has demonstrated metallic nanoparticle writing and imaging with such a probe and the Nanonics MultiView Systems. These Systems are designed for all SPM probes in use today and are the only SPM systems that can use such glass probes with cylindrical cantilevers.


Gold Nanoparticle Lines on Glass

Sunday, 14 April 2013 08:42

Nano Ink Jet Printing


A: Confocal image of deposited Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein deposited with 150nm AFM nanopipette probe with a driving pulsed voltage at the sequence shown in B. The image shows deposition of the protein at the negative provided pulses. Bar is 6 microns.

B: Diagrammatic spatial map of the provided voltage applied on the Nanopipette at a negative pulsed signal as shown in C.

C: Negative pulses voltage provided through two electrodes at the inner of the nanopipette and the metallic coating at the end of the nanopipette’s tip. The image (A) shows clearly that the protein was delivered out to the surface at the blue lines where the voltage is -1V and no writing at the zero voltage areas indicated by green at B.

WSxM software has been used for image processing of the pictures above: I. Horcas et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013705 (2007)

“The general nanoprinting and nanoinjection of proteins on non-conducting or conducting substrates with a high degree of control both in terms of positional and timing accuracy is an important goal that could impact diverse fields from biotechnology (protein chips) to molecular electronics and from fundamental studies in cell biology to nanophotonics.

Nanonics combines capillary electrophoresis (CE), a separation method with considerable control of protein movement, with the unparalleled positional accuracy of an atomic force microscope(AFM). This combination provides the ability to electrophoretically or electroosmotically correlate the timing of protein migration with AFM control of the protein deposition at a high concentration in defined locations and highly confined volumes estimated to be 2 al.

Electrical control of bovine serum albumin printing on standard protein-spotting glass substrates is demonstrated. For this advance, fountain pen nanolithography (FPN) that uses cantilevered glass-tapered capillaries is amended with the placement of electrodes on the nanopipette itself. This results in imposed voltages that are three orders of magnitude less than what is normally used in capillary electrophoresis.

The development of atomic-forcecontrolled capillary electrophoretic printing (ACCEP) has the potential for electrophoretic separation, with high resolution, both in time and in space. The large voltage drop at the tip of the tapered nanopipettes allows for significant increases in concentration of protein in the small printed volumes.

All of these attributes combine to suggest that this methodology should have a significant impact in science and technology.”


Lovsky et at,  Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 396, Num. 1, Jan 2010

Ideal systems for this application:

1. MultiView 1000 
2. MultiView 2000 
3. MultiView 4000 

Sunday, 14 April 2013 08:17

NanoEtching using Fountain Pen


Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2689 (1999) 

Nanoeteching of chrome by dispensing  liquid through a cantilevered force sensing nanopipette - a NanoFountainpenTM (middle and right frames recorded through the fully integrated optical microscope during the chemical etching process).

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