A variety of inks can be injected into the nanopipettes through simple capillary actions without specific treatment. These include water, proteins, different buffers and metallic nanoparticles suspensions. In addition, a variety of surfaces can be used for lithography actions - including conducting, semi-conducting and non-conducting - such as glass, Si, Sio2. No special treatment is required for the sample.

The flexible selection of inks and surfaces in FPN techniques allows for numerous advantages compared to other existing Nanolithography techniques such as NanoImprint, Dip Pen NanoLithography, Pulsed induced Lithography, and others.



Protein G on BSA

BSA on Aldehyde

BSA on Si

 Avidin on Aldehyde





TiO2 on hydrophilic

TiO2 on hydrophobic

GFP on Aldehyde

Cl2 etching on Cr





Wet Etching of Chrome

Trypsin enzyme
etching of BSA

Au particles on Si

 Au particles on

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