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Tuesday, 10 October 2017 07:25

SCIX2017

SCIX2017Nanonics is thrilled to be represented by Flash-Photonics at this year's SCIX Conference. Come visit Booth 22 to learn more about AFM-Raman-TERS!  

Tuesday, 26 September 2017 13:28

SECM SPM

 

SECM - Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

Featuring in situ Raman Functionality

 

 SECM

 

 

 

SECM is a tool which is used to measure processes mainly in the vicinity of a surface. This technique can be used for fuel cells research, surface reactivity of solid state materials, the elucidation of enzymatic activities and other biophysical investigations. These all call for the probe to be in the near vicinity of the analyzed surface and to be able to control its spatial orientation.

The AFM-SECM combination enables one to track the topography in real-time at a fixed working distance while electrochemical signals related to surface activity are collected at the probe. The ability to add on spectrochemical analysis enhances this technique and can set new horizons to electrochemical investigations. Monitoring the Raman signal at real time gives the ability to understand the dynamics of the chemical reactions occurring at a sub-micron resolution in the vicinity of the SECM probe. 

 

Innovations in SECM

Nanonics systems provide unique liquid-based capabilities in scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) that now for the first time can be combined with other SPM methods such as AFM-Raman for chemical imaging together with the topographic and electrochemical current imaging.  The Nanonics SECM capability incorporates Nanonics innovations in probe design, tip-sample feedback, and liquid cell design to enable new and revolutionary capabilities for the most advanced experiments.

 

Probes

 

Nanonics manufactures custom SECM probes with a continuous nanowire of platinum embedded in glass.  A side view is seen below on the left left while a top view is seen below on the right clearly showing the platinum wire and glass.  In the top-view, the white spot in the middle is the wire; the black ring around it is the glass.

 

 

SECM PRobe SECM Probe2

These custom probes provide simultaneous normal force sensing with full SECM functionality.  Tip-sample feedback is maintained with the classic optical-based deflection method where a laser is reflected off the back end of this cantilever and directed towards a detector.  Feedback can be maintained either via cantilever deflection or oscillation amplitude to keep the force, and hence tip-sample interaction, constant.

Liquid Cell/Environmental Chamber

 

 

Environmental Chamber

Nanonics provides a custom-designed liquid cell and environmental chamber to use in such measurements.

 

 

 

 

 

Liquid Cell - Exposed

Sample is placed in ring in the middle. Changeable wire electrodes are on the sides.

  

 

Liquid Cell - Partially Covered

SECM Cell that is partially covered to minimize evaporation.

 

 

Liquid Cell - Bottom

Contains back contact for applying voltage to the sample.

 

 

 Liquid Cell

The electrochemical cell is specially designed to protect from spillage.

Raman Integration

Nanonics systems feature full integration capabilities for real-time SECM measurements with AFM force feedback and simultaneous Raman measurements.  The Raman setup through the laser, spectrometer, and CCD camera are placed above the probe with the optically friendly scanner and probe. Fluid measurements are observed using the critically important water immersion objective.  

 

SECM2000 compressed 

 

Nanonics MV2000 SECM-Raman Integration

Especially effective with water immersion objectives from above on opaque materials.

(Pictured here with Renishaw InVia)

 

SECM2000 2

 

 

Nanonics MV2000 SECM-Raman Integration

(Pictured here with Bruker Senterra)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECM4000 

 

Nanonics MV4000 SECM-Raman Integration

Featuring multi-probe capabilities and unique Tuning Fork technology.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECM1500 

 

Nanonics MV15000 SECM-Raman Integration

Entry level with optical upgrade capability. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case Study: Etching of Si Wafer with Au

SECM-Raman Application: Simultaneous SECM current and Raman imaging of copper during real-time etching

A silicon wafer with a thin layer of copper was used as the substrate for this electrochemical etching experiment.   The SPM probe etched a small, ~4um hole within the copper layer, exposing the silicon substrate.   Images of the substrate before (left)  and after (right)  the etching can be seen below with the etched point showing up as a dark spot in the right image.

 

The etching was monitored in real time with in situ Raman scattering where the Raman signature of silicon at 523 cm-1 was used to track the appearance of the silicon and thus progress of the etching process.  A sample spectrum revealing the Si peak in the Raman spectrum is shown here:

SECMSi

Simultaneously, the current was monitored revealing a time delay between when the current was measured and when the exposed silicon was picked up the Raman spectra.  This time delay was found to be dependent on the probe-substrate vertical distance. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monday, 25 September 2017 11:03

Hot off the Press!

Final cover HR

Nanonics is pleased to share with you the news of the recent publication of Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy: Applications in Nanomaterials, edited by Mario Lanza (Publisher: Wiley-VCH). The book includes a chapter entitled "Multiprobe Electrical Measurements without Optical Interference," written by Nanonics team members. This new publication will no doubt contribute greatly to the field of CAFM.

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Thursday, 27 July 2017 10:04

Contact Request

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Sunday, 23 July 2017 09:51

Photovoltaics

 

 

Photovoltaics

Photoconductivity Imaging with Super-Resolution

 

 PV Graphene

Reference: Mueller, T., Xia, F., Freitag, M., Tsang, J., & Avouris, P. (2009). Role of contacts in graphene transistors: A scanning photocurrent study. Physical Review B, 79(24), 245430.


 

 

The Growth of Solar Cell Energy & Photovoltaics

  • Over the past decade, the solar cell energy industry has grown dramatically; photovoltaic research has emerged as a dynamic and ever-increasingly important field. Recent estimations indicate that total PV installations in the world have reached 300 GW – a 4000% increase since 2006! 
    (See: Kurtz, S., Haegel, N., Sinton, R., & Margolis, R. (2017). A new era for solar. Nature Photonics11(1), 3-5).

 

 

  • The innovative nanostructured solar cells that are being developed require advanced nanoscale instruments that can achieve accurate and high-resolution photoconductivity measurements.

 

  • Now more than ever, the ability to obtain high resolution photoconductivity measurements is a critical element in the development of this growing solar cell industry. Such measurements are applicable to all photovoltaic materials, including:

 

• Perovskite • Ribbon-Si • Si Thin-Film
• 2D Materials • C-Si • GaAs Thin-Film 
• Graphene • Mono-Si  • MLM
• MoS2 • Poly-Si  • CdTe
• Expatial Si Wafers  • CIGS
     

 

Limitations of Macroscopic Photoconductivity Techniques

Common photoconductivity techniques that employ standard Gaussian beam far-field optics are inherently limited:

1. Limited Resolution

The resolution of a lens focused beam gives at best 0.5micron resolution at 500nm illumination. Thus, such macroscopic photo-current methods study spatially averaged properties of the PV device and are ineffective for the study of nanostructured photovoltaic cells, nanoscale defects, grain boundaries, and thin film solar cells. Furthermore, the shape of a lens focused Gaussian beam makes it difficult to impossible to illuminate a sample next to an electrical contact.

 

2. No Structural Correlation

Most techniques do not include the capability to generate online nanometric sturctual correlation.

 

3. Out-of-Focus Background

Lenses focus below and above the sample plane and therefore feature an illumination background.

 

4. Sensitivity Reduction

Typically a reduction in sensitivity can be observed, due to regions illuminated that are not directly of interest.

 

5. Non-uniform Illumination

Scanning a beam over a sample with varying topography, or with some tilt in the mounting of the sample, leads to changes in light exposure from pixel to pixel thereby generating photovoltaic artifacts.

 

6. Partial Information

Standard macroscopic photoconductive measurements are unidimensional. They only offer photocurrent characterization, without any correlation to changes in other functional properties of a sample.

 

Top 5 Advantages of Nanonics Photoconductivity Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy

Nanonics systems for Near-field scanning photocurrent microscopy represent a fundamental paradigm shift in photoconductivity measurements, solving these limitations. Near field scanning probe microscopy (NSOM) allows for nanometric optical characterization with correlated sample morphology imaging. This innovative approach features 5 powerful advantages:

1. Super-Resolution

Imaging of light-induced current and voltage with previously unachievable; super-resolution down to 50nm

2. Photocurrent with Structural Correlation

Pixel by pixel correlation of device structure with photocurrent and photovoltage images

3. Uniform Illumination

Identical illumination at each pixel

4. Artifact-free

No optical background artifacts or noise

5. On-line Chemical Characterization

Readily correlate photoconductivity images with imaging of chemical structure

 

 

Example Case Study

Super-resolution Imaging of Photocurrent Induced in Graphene Transistor by Near-field Optical Excitation 

Reference: Mueller, T., Xia, F., Freitag, M., Tsang, J., & Avouris, P. (2009). Role of contacts in graphene transistors: A scanning photocurrent study. Physical Review B, 79(24), 245430.  

 

Customer Application:

PV Schematic

Super-resolution: Illuminating with an NSOM aperture down to 50nm in AFM feedback with the sample. Feedback is controlled with a tuning fork without any induced optical background.

[Read more: Review of Scientific Instruments 87, 083703 (2016)]

 Uniform Illumination: Using AFM feedback to maintain an exact distance from the surface for unvarying pixel by pixel illumination intensity with a top-hat intensity profile.

Artifact-free: No background illumination either from the NSOM probe normal force tuning fork feedback or from variation in illumination intensity.

Structural Correlation: Scanning the aperture with AFM feedback control to obtain simultaneously pixel by pixel structural correlation.PV Feedback

On-line Chemical Characterization: A cantilevered NSOM probe that does not obscure the microscope's optical axis from above, allowing for spectral imaging on-line of Raman, fluorescence, etc.

Multiprobe: Exclusive Nanonics multiprobe capabilities upgrades p-NSOM from one to four probes allowing for on-line Kelvin probe, electrical and thermal conductivity.

 

  Exemplary Photoconductive Image of a Graphene Transistor Elucidating Effects of Metallic Contacts:

PV Graphene 

 

 Additional Features

 

Enjoy Complete Optical AccessPV Probes

Nanonics SPM systems feature open optical access from above and below. This allows for the seamless integration of NSOM along with complementary macroscopic techniques for all optical geometries. With optical integration, you can obtain comprehensive characterization of PV devices. High resolution photoconductivity imaging can be readily correlated with all past measurement protocols including Raman and confocal microscopy.

Read more: Solar Energy Volume 153, 1 September 2017, Pages 134-141

 

Enable Advanced Applications with Mutliple SPM ProbesPV Multi

The exclusive Nanonics multiprobe system upgrades NSOM from one probe to two, three, or even four probes including probes for different SPM methods. Thus system with two NSOM probe provides subwavelength incoupling and outcoupling of light, which is most important for study photoconductive properties of thin films, 2D material-based photovoltaic cells and nano structural cells. Integration of NSOM probe with electrical, magnetic, KPFM and other SPM probes leads to simultaneous comprehensive characterization of photovoltaic devices, which is not possible with single probe systems. Each probe enables independent XYZ scanning together with sample scanning.

Read more: Nanoscale. 2017 May 25; 9 (20):6695-6702

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Thursday, 13 July 2017 09:18

3D FlatScan Scanning Stage

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Monday, 26 June 2017 09:34

Support for MURI Funding Application

onr Logo

The deadline for the US Office of Naval Research MURI grant program is fast approaching. The Multidisciplinary University Research Initiatives (MURI) program is intended for "teams of researchers investigating high priority topics and opportunities that intersect more than one traditional technical discipline." With years of experience as leaders in multidisciplinary SPM research and development, Nanonics is uniquely positioned to assist you in your proposal.

 

Duration of Award: 3-5 years

Estimated Maximum Annual Sum: $1.5 million

Deadline for White Paper: July 17, 2017

 

Learn more about the MURI program

Download the Funding Opportunity Announcement

 

In the past, Nanonics has provided quotations, letters of support, and detailed technical consultations for researchers, employing a variety of our multidisciplinary SPM solutions.  Nanonics specialists are here to support your research initiatives. Some examples:

 

Nanonics has designed its optically integrated multiprobe platforms to facilitate multidisciplinary research.  The MURI program presents a unique opportunity to incorporate one of these high-end SPM systems into your research:

 

SpectraView-MultiProbe

  • Multiprobe SPM allows for studying and understanding a variety of nanoscale transport properties, e.g. thermal, mechanical, and optical.
  • Access a variety of advanced SPM measurements: MFM, EFM, PFM, KPM.
  • Full optical integration enables the addition of in situ measurements such as Raman, IR, THz, and fluorescent spectroscopy. 

CryoView

  • This award-winning system upgrades the multiprobe platform to high-vacuum and low-temperature environments for studying samples in the most challenging of conditions. 
  • The CryoView is fully integrated with near-field and far-field optics, Raman, IR, THz, and fluorescent spectroscopy. 

 

 

Contact a Nanonics Specialist today for support with YOUR proposal

 

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Sunday, 18 June 2017 09:53

Multi-Dimensional Metrology (MDM) Consortium Soon to Begin

Amiga Custom Chip Paula 8364The Israeli chip consortium, MDM - Multi Dimensional Metrology, will begin operating in July 2017. following approval by the Innovation Authority.

The new consortium will deal with the development of measurement and process control technologies in the chip industry, based on data fusion from many sources. The consortium was established at the initiative of Applied Materials and the chairman of the consortium will be Yoram Uziel, director of technology at PDC, Applied Materials' Metrology Division. The State of Israel is expected to participate in approximately 66% of the consortium's budget via the Innovation Authority, for 3-5 years.

The new consortium will include leading companies in the field of process control, such as Bruker (which acquired Jordan Valley of Israel) and Nova; Dell EMC; Nanonics, leader in atomic microscopy measuring solutions; Nanomotion, which develops nanoscale conveyance systems; XWINSYS, which develops measurement equipment for critical final stages of the production line; and EL-MUL, from Nes Ziona, which manufactures detectors for the nanoscale industry. The academic side will include research groups from the Technion, Hebrew University, Tel Aviv University, the Weizmann Institute, Bar-Ilan University and Ben-Gurion University, which will also provide construction services for nanoscale structures.

Uziel defined the consortium’s area of focus as Multi-Dimensional Metrology, in order to express the idea that it is necessary today to integrate different sources of information from different measuring devices in order to overcome the limitations of accuracy, characterization, and resolution of new chips that will be released in the coming years. The industry today faces a number of new challenges. The chip minimization process, culminating in 5 nanometer geometry, and the transition to building 3D structures create difficult problems requiring a new type of technological response.

 

*Translation based on: http://chiportal.co.il/main-news/49-q/5452-mdm-concorcium-1306179 

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Thursday, 08 June 2017 08:04

Nanonics at ICAVS9!

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Sunday, 04 June 2017 11:40

What are the Different NSOM Modes?

True Collection Mode

In this mode, light illuminates the sample and is then collected through the NSOM probe and measured by an optical detector; thus there is far field excitation with near-field collection as seen in the schematic (Far-field  excitation from the top is also available).  Note that the optical microscope objective is not used for feedback; the feedback is instead through the tip-probe interaction.  The ability to scan the tip is important for collection mode so that the illumination point, either from above or below, is held fixed while the tip scans to collect the near-field signal.

NSOM transmission mode

In this mode, light is introduced through the optical fiber and collected by a detector underneath the sample as shown, allowing for NSOM imaging of transparent samples as shown in the schematic above.   This is suitable for transparent  or semi-transparent samples.  Thus you can perform experiments that require near-field excitation and far-field collection.

Reflection mode NSOM

In true reflection mode, light is introduced via the NSOM probe, and then collected by a detector above the probe as shown in the schematic below allowing for NSOM imaging of opaque samples.  True Reflection mode NSOM requires the use of cantilevered probes with an extended tip  such as the ones provided by Nanonics, as well as a free optical axis from above so that the probe does not obscure the optical path to the objective and then to the detector from above.   Furthermore, true reflection mode NSOM requires a separation of the excitation and collection paths so that they don’t interfere with one another; designs where the excitation and collection follow the same path – as is the case for instrumentation that uses apertured Si NSOM probes or when the reflected light is collected from the sides as  with straight fiber NSOM operated in shear force feedback - confound the NSOM measurement. 

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